After four days of potholing, moving barrels across imaginary ravines and trying to map-read their way around the Herefordshire countryside, the pressure on the group of trainees was beginning to tell.

The military-style programme was designed to foster leadership skills and demonstrate the dynamics involved in group working. “Form, storm, reform, perform,” the instructors explained.

The group seemed to have got stuck in the storming stage, or that is how it seemed when one member, a local authority IT manager, tipped over a table in frustration during a particularly tense discussion and was led from the room by the course leader, an ex-SAS officer.

Courses on leadership are more popular than ever as organisations seek to equip their IT bosses with the skills to cope in an increasingly complex environment.

Personal development is about helping individuals become effective leaders able to set direction, persuade others to follow and deliver IT benefits to the business. But no matter how inventive the training courses on offer, many CIOs, like the unfortunate delegate in Herefordshire, are struggling to apply them to the practical problems of running an IT department.

When IT management organisation CIO Connect asked 28 of its blue-chip company members about the importance of training and development, all those polled said it was critical to have plans in place for both themselves and their teams. About two-thirds said that they had benefited from previous development programmes.

But the survey went on to reveal an alarming gap between these good intentions and the reality of training in these firms. Nearly half the CIOs polled did not think their existing plans were good, and 14 per cent considered them inadequate.

For CIO Connect members, the priorities for personal development were influencing boardroom colleagues and building commitment to IT across the organisation, although, worryingly, respondents did not give their own needs a high priority.

“Training is not a strength of the UK economy,” agrees Alistair Russell, development director at CIO Connect. “It is an important lever to effect change but, unfortunately, it is not always accepted as a significant one. There is an opportunity for us to do more.”

Russell runs CIO Connect’s programme for training the CIOs of the future. “Personal development only has an impact if it changes the way an organisation works,” he says. “There is no use in building a CV with qualifications just for the sake of it.”

His programme is a mixture of one-to-one coaching and group working on real problems. “Leadership is situational: you don’t get to be there by being like someone you worked with,” he says.

“Different circumstances call for different kinds of people. Talking in the abstract is only partially helpful: you also need feedback in the heat of the moment.”

Russell thinks that around five per cent of a CIO’s time should be spent thinking about how he or she is doing their job. He himself spends around an hour each week going over issues in his own working life.
“At a senior level you are very pushed for time so development is about making choices about how you spend what free time you have.

“There is a difference between a one-shot course and development sustained over a period of time,” he says.

Chris White, CIO at international corporate law firm Ashurst, agrees. He is putting his team leaders through a programme called One Team, designed to foster better communication in his department. The programme involves three or four residential sessions. “Often, people come back from a session enthused but then fall back into their old ways. One Team is a way of keeping the initiative going,” he says.

The programme, which is driven by attendees, has paid off by breaking down communications barriers that had built up because the department is split between two sites. It also enabled the law firm to implement a document and email system with far less hiccups than might otherwise have been the case.

Communication skills are important to Richard Snooks. When he revamped the IT department at advertising agency WWAV Rapp Collins, he adopted the organisation’s creative approach to business. “The skill a technologist really needs to acquire is how to communicate,” he explains. “I have always been quite confident as a communicator.”

Instead of looking for technically qualified individuals, Snooks sought out bright communicators. Many of those he hired had little or no IT background, and indeed one had just gained a PhD in music.

“People coming through university on a computer science course are often least equipped to make a good contribution in the IT world,” Snooks says. “The strategy showed in the attitude that the business had to the IT function. We were seen as an integral part of the business. A lot of good IT teams are now thinking this way.”

Snooks now sets aside a day every four months or so to meet other CIOs who are members of a network that he belongs to, set up by a training firm called IT Leaders. They spend time exchanging experiences and exploring management tools and techniques. “The more senior you are in a role the more lonely it is, and the more you need people to talk to,” he says.

On a recent away-day he and his group looked at neuro-linguistic programming, a method of making emotional and behavioural changes in yourself and in other people. However, Snooks acknowledges that some employers may see personal development as a luxury. That is a mistake, he maintains, since there is always a balance to be struck between doing the job and learning how to do it better.

“Personal development is something that’s been neglected in the past,” Snooks says. “A lot of management is based on intuition, but being an effective leader is about psychology: understanding people.”

In his early days, Snooks read self-help books like Kenneth Blanchard’s The One Minute Manager, designed to help people like him improve their management skills, but he knew he needed more. “As I became more senior I realised I needed to get away from the office to get a better sense of objectivity about my work,” he says. “I wanted to discuss issues with like-minded people in a training environment.”

Today, as CIO at property investment company Capital & Regional, Snooks went out and formed relationships with his contemporaries – even those who worked for competitors. He also developed close relationships with two people in his own firm – a human resources manager and the chief executive of another division of the company who had “made considerable progress in how he communicated with people and took them along with him”.

Personal development has convinced Snooks that ‘managing by walking around’ is the best way to do things.
“It is important to make sure you spend the biggest part of your time focusing on communications, empowering others and delegating responsibility. Don’t waste your time on 150 emails. More people should be out of their chairs, moving and shaking; talking and influencing people.”

René Carayol is one person who could never be accused of sitting behind a desk. The dynamic CIO turned management guru fills his time writing, broadcasting and teaching. He acts as a mentor to some 50 people involved in IT.

His early career followed a classic path from analyst programmer to CIO and finally chief executive of a dot-com company. Although he was technically skilled, the younger Carayol completely lacked business knowledge and leadership skills.

So when he joined the board of Pepsi after a 10-year stint at Marks and Spencer, he knew nothing about business and couldn’t even read a balance sheet. His first board meeting was a fiery one as the soft drinks company discussed splitting off from a joint venture with Whitbread.

“I was intoxicated, but I never said a word,” he admits. At the end of the meeting, the chief executive drew Carayol aside and demanded to know why he had not contributed. “I explained that no one had mentioned IT. He told me that I was not responsible for IT; I was responsible for the day-to-day running of the company.”

Carayol knew he needed to learn fast. He found a business mentor called Donald Harris, who was 30 years his senior, and the pair met each month to discuss Carayol’s career and the insight he needed to acquire. One thing Carayol learnt was that while he was good at the big picture he was not so hot on detail.

Leadership, he says, is about finding your strengths and weaknesses and building on the strengths.

“Don taught me how to be a board director. Everywhere I went after that I found a mentor. These people are flattered to be asked. They will become your critical friend: someone who sits inside your tent and says the things to you that other people won’t,” he explains.

David McKean, 10 years a CIO and now head of IT Leaders, says leadership development may be a status thing, particularly when it comes to qualifications like MBAs, but in reality it’s about developing existing skills and pooling knowledge.

IT Leaders is at the sharper end of the development business. McKean teaches project management methodologies such as the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (Itil) and Projects in Controlled Environments 2 (Prince2).

“We spend about 20 per cent of our time on these tools. They are important, but they are more about training than -development. However, there are still a lot of people who don’t know about them – about 60 per cent of those who attend.”

Broader-based leadership skills are also on the agenda. McKean introduces delegates to scenarios involving teams, co-workers, innovation and change, crises, corporate governance and strategy. Trainees are instructed in emotional intelligence and corporate politics and are introduced to management techniques such as the balanced scorecard and the McKinsey 7-S model.

“Very few people have the skill of developing strategy in a step-by-step way,” says McKean. “You have to align your IT strategy with the business. We tell people what they should be asking from the business.”

One of those requests is for the CIO to have a seat at the top table. “The reason IT should be on the board is that constant alignment needs to be made between IT and the business. IT’s role is not to lead, but we teach CIOs the interaction points along the way,” he adds.

McKean has had his successes. One CIO, who was keen to exert more influence in his organisation, recognised that his problem lay in being physically too remote from other executives. After three or four weeks of discussing his predicament with his trainers, he spotted an opportunity to move his desk to the top floor.

“It’s about confidence,” says McKean. “You need to look for small victories that will build your confidence. It is still as political as ever and there are still the same number of places in the inner sanctum. If IT is in there, someone else is out.”

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No soft soap at Unilever

When Unilever wanted to improve how its 3000-strong IT department was viewed by the rest of the business, the firm embarked on a massive personal development programme aimed at changing how its technical people behaved.
The problem for Unilever was that IT specialists tended to act as technical flunkies, doing the bidding of the company’s business managers even when those managers were not best equipped to make decisions about IT. Unilever wanted an IT function that acted more as a business partner to the departments it served, understanding their problems and making suggestions about how IT could solve them.
“We wanted to change the IT mindset, to create IT relationship managers or IT liaison managers,” says Daryl Beck, who devised the change programme and has the title of director of IT excellence at Unilever.
It was while he was running Unilever’s IT operations in Arabia that Beck conceived the idea of changing the way IT behaved. “IT reported to finance and we were seen as the people with the screwdrivers at the other end of the phone. I said it was time the IT profession changed and my boss Neil Slater said ‘come and do it for me’.”
In 2005, Unilever was undergoing a reorganisation and the future of the IT department was under discussion. The company’s senior management in Europe wanted to create a group of internal consultants with specialist skills. “You could say they already existed in the organisation, but they were doing other things. We needed to define this role.”
Beck devised a strategy that would turn out people who were capable of managing relationships, who had IT consulting skills and who were confident in their abilities. “It was not a course but a change programme,” he declares.
With the help of three commercial training companies, Beck created a programme consisting of four modules. The 800 IT leaders taking part were to start on personal development and relationship management, before moving on to IT consulting skills. The third module would tackle account management, with the final part focused on business process reengineering.
“The very first thing we do is personal development,” says Dominic Turnbull, managing director of the McLane Group, which worked with Beck on that portion of the programme. “You are dragged onto the pitch and invited to expose yourself. We ask people to reflect on situations when they were at their best, and three or four disappointments.”
So far around half of those taking part have undergone the first module and Unilever will begin rolling out the second module next year.
The price tag for the programme has been relatively low at under £500,000, because Unilever has done a lot of the training itself. In Europe, groups of 20 or so trainees have attended Unilever’s management development centre in Surrey. The programme has also been run in Brazil, North America, Singapore and South Africa.
What results has the transformation programme achieved so far?
“In pockets it has been better than expected,” says Beck. “In pockets it has been disappointing. Success is when we get invited to talk about functional strategies and we have seen that in some areas, which says to me the business is starting to realise you can’t go ahead without IT so let’s invite them into our conversation.”